Volume 10 Issue 2 April 2014

| September 21, 2014

Volume 10 Issue 2 April 2014

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Foreword: Dr. Paul Robertson and Dr. Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh

  1. {slider The Effect of Teaching Lexical Cohesive Devices through Short Stories on Reading Comprehension among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners.  Maliheh Konarizadeh, Farzin Fahimniya and Ali Asghar Eftekhary|closed}The present study was designed to investigate the influence of lexical cohesion instruction on reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners through teaching short stories. First, 28 learners taking conversational classes, Interchange 3, were selected. Then, a Colchester Placement Test was run. Among them, 20 intermediate learners were remained as participants. Two classes, each contained 10 students, were determined as experimental and control groups. Since two classes were not selected randomly, this study is a form of quasi-experimental research. A validated (FCE) test (2001) was administered as pretest for both groups. After that, the researchers taught an intermediate short story to experimental group by focusing on teaching lexical cohesion (synonym, antonym, repetition and collocation), the control group, however, was taught by asking them to read the very short story and then being asked comprehension questions afterwards. After 12 session treatment, a validated (FCE) posttest (2001) was given to both groups. Then, the collected data from both groups were computed and analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics, i. e. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and Mann-Whitney test. Finally, the data analysis results revealed that the experimental group performed better in comparison to control group; thus it is concluded that lexical cohesive devices instruction has a significant effect on reading comprehension of EFL learners.{/sliders}
  2. {slider The Impact of Teacher Feedback on the Accuracy of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners: Cohesive Devices in Focus.  Seyed Mahdi Araghi and Fereshteh Asadzadian|closed}This study investigates a functional analysis of cohesive ties in students’ journal writings. To this purpose and to find whether the implicit feedback on cohesive devices plays any role in the students’ correct use of cohesive ties, a twelve-session class was held for 15 intermediate level EFL students learning English in a language institute. Every session, the students were required to write a journal at home (without time constraint) and one in class (under time constraint) based on their experiences, interests and feelings on the topics proposed by the teacher; writings were then delivered to the teacher to be checked and corrected. Teacher added comments to the writings reflecting her own experiences and ideas which were mostly advisory, praising and expressive. Corrections mainly focused on the students mistakes on the use of cohesive devices. A pre-test was administered to the participants prior to the treatment. Twelve sessions of instruction each lasting for about 45 minutes comprised the whole treatment. In the last session, a posttest was applied which proved to have a strong correlation with the pretest. The results evidenced a significant improvement in the number of occurrence of cohesive ties. Besides, the number of mistakes committed by the students decreased in the posttest which was an indication of the efficacy of treatment.{/sliders}
  3. {slider The Relationship between Trilingualism and Attention Span: the Case of Iranian Trilinguals.Saeed Khojasteh Nam, Nasser Fallah and Amir Shahraki|closed}In recent decades, multilingualism as an essential cognitive, social and cultural phenomenon has been extensively studied among different societies from several perspectives. Nevertheless, a review of the related literature reveals that this phenomenon has not been given enough scholarly attention in Iran as an ethnically and linguistically diverse country. This study was an attempt to bridge this gap by focusing on one component of multiliguality. It sought to examine whether there was any significant difference between trilinguals and monolinguals on their attention span. To this end, first, an English proficiency test was conducted to assure homogeneity among the trilingual population, and then a self reported attention span questionnaire named MAAS (Brown & Ryan, 2003) was administered among 233 trilinguals and 235 monolinguals under test conditions. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between participants on the same test.{/sliders}
  4. {slider Investigating the Impact of Emotional Intelligence in ESP Reading Comprehension Test Performance. Mostafa Khorsandi and Leila Mahd Qarabagh|closed }In recent years, Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been a popular topic of debate in the field of education as an area worthy of instruction and research. Although EI has recently gained a momentum, few if any studies have addressed it with respect to ESP context. Having this in mind and in line with previous research in this field this study attempted to investigate the role of Emotional Intelligent in ESP reading comprehension tests at the university level in Iran. To this end, 233 students from different majors (English literature, accounting, economics, mechanic and chemical engineering) participated in the study. In addition to the Emotional Intelligence questionnaire, the participants in each major took their reading comprehension tests related to their fields of study. Subsequent data revealed, first, that Emotional intelligence is significantly related to the test performance of the participants, and second, the English literature major students had a higher EI in test performance than those in other majors. Furthermore, the multiple regression analysis showed that two of the five aspects of emotional intelligence as defined by (Bar-on1997), namely ‘intrapersonal’ and ‘adaptability’, are significantly positively correlated with EST tests scores. The results have some implications for TEFL at the university level{/sliders}
  5. {slider English as an International Language in Iran and Teachers’ Competence. Zahra Masoumpanah, Mohammad Reza Talebinezhad and Sadegh Shariatifar|closed}English as an International Language (EIL) with its focus on cross-cultural communication, English varieties, and non-native speakers has realigned teachers’ sense of professional competence. This study investigates how the notions of EIL interact with Iranian language teachers’ perception of professional competence. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on teachers’ views about their teaching profession, and their beliefs in their teaching practices. This was followed by a qualitative study, an interview. The results of this study shed significant light on the perception of professional competence by Iranian language teacher and showed that in Iran, proficiency in English is important for teachers and the focus is on teaching grammar instead of communication. But they don’t insist on teaching culture of the native speakers to their students. So, this worked as a filter which made teachers not to accept EIL. There was no exposure to variations of English and as English teaching professionals, they didn’t apply EIL in their classes.{/sliders}
  6. {slider Iranian EFL Learners’ Attitudes towards CALL. Salma Parhizgar|closed} What the body of CALL research today needs is a full description of the context and its people, in addition to a complete understanding of what tasks learners perform with computers, how they perform them and what it means to them. Part of the implementation of technology and computers in any language context also involves studying variables of teacher and student attitude. The investigation of learners’ attitudes illustrates how beneficial computers can be for learning a second/foreign language. The present study, therefore, intended to survey the attitudes of Iranian EFL learners towards their individual implementation of CALL and to identify the factors underlying their attitudes. It also aimed at exploring the kinds of practices which Iranian EFL learners use in order to learn English through computer. The findings demonstrated that computer use for the purpose of language learning is highly welcomed in the Iranian context of EFL education, but as evidence shows, a reasonable level of computer knowledge for both students and teachers is needed to be reached in advance. Since Iranian students think that computers can improve their FL learning, it is recommended that further research try to find whether computer-assisted instruction guarantees greater success in language learning or not.{/sliders}
  7. {slider A Contrastive Study of Translation Strategies across Literary and Philosophical Genres. Angineh Sarkisian, Zahra Amirian and Akbar Hesabi|closed}Nowadays, the term genre is used to refer to sociolinguistic activities where participants try to achieve particular purposes. Genre has for a long time been carried out in academic and ESP settings, though, very rarely in the field of translation. This study investigated the strategies used in the translation of two distinct genres in order to reveal whether translators show any difference in their choice of strategies while translating different genres. For this purpose, the first fifty pages of “A history of western philosophy” by B. Russel in genre of philosophy and “The remains of the day” by K. Ishiguro in literary genre both translated by Najaf Daryabandary were selected. The procedures introduced by Newmark (1988) were selected due to their applicability to a greater range of texts and also their number. Results of the Chi-square tests showed significant differences only in three procedures across the two genres. However, in most cases no significant difference was observed.{/sliders}
  8. {slider A Comparative Study of Cohesive Devices in Reading Comprehension Texts by TEFL and Translation Students. Abdolreza Pazhakh, Elkhas Veisi and Mohammadyar-e-Raeesi|closed}This research attempts to comparatively study Cohesive Devices (CDs) in Reading Comprehension (RC) texts by Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) and translation students. To do this purpose, from a total of 170 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners, 120 homogeneous intermediate students were selected, randomly divided into eight groups, each including 15, four TEFL experimental and control (two by two) and four translation experimental and control (also two by two) groups. Next, two versions (authentic and non-authentic) of the same RC test were provided. The authentic version which included CDs and had not been changed was assigned to all groups in both fields of study to respond. Then just the experimental groups were given information about CDs. Finally the same authentic text was given to one experimental and one control group of each field of study, while the non-authentic text with no CDs and changes was assigned to other experimental and control groups of both fields of study. The results revealed that, firstly, there is no significance difference between TEFL and translation groups in regard to RC. Secondly, students responding to the authentic texts performed better than those responding to the non-authentic texts. Thirdly, students informed about CDs outperformed students who had not informed in related issue. As a result, teaching CDs has positive effect on RC and they are responsible for creating cohesion in texts while non-authentic texts are weak and scrambled.{/sliders}
  9. {slider The Study of Translation Strategies of English Idioms in Children’s Literary Books. Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh, Navid Rahmani and Mahdie Askarpour|closed}Idioms can be considered as a part of everyday language. They are the essence of any language and the most problematic part to handle with. This study investigated idioms and the way they are translated in children’s literary texts and novels. The model taken for the framework of the study was Baker’s model in translation of idioms. These strategies were investigated in The Silver chair, one of the seventh fantasy novels for children by C.S. Lewis and its two Persian translations. The first translation is done by Esmailian, and the second translation is done by Eghtedari and Karimzade. To answer the research questions, first, English idioms in The Silver chair were identified and paired. Then, the strategies applied on idioms were identified and their frequency and percentage were calculated, the results were presented in charts for subsequent analysis. The most frequent strategy in both translations was paraphrase, and the least frequent one was omission.{/sliders}
  10. {slider The Cross-sectional Study of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Burnout and their Teaching Styles Preferences: Relationship in Focus. Seyyed Reza Seyyedi Noghabi and Farrokhlagh Heidari|closed}Nowadays, many teachers around the world are facing with the fact that students are not the sole matter in pedagogical issues, but tutors and specifically their psychological conditions have great impact on the success or failure of teaching/learning systems. This study examines the relationship between teachers’ burnout and their teaching style preferences and the role of gender in teaching style preferences among 99 EFL teachers in Mashhad and Zahedan cities. The data were gathered through: Maslach Teachers’ Burnout Inventory which consists of 22items (with 3 sub-scales known as: Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment), and Teachers’ Teaching Styles (Grasha, 1996) consisting of 40 items and 5 sub-scales (Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator, and Delegator styles). For analyzing the gathered data between teachers’ burnout with their teaching style preferences, we used One-way ANOVA. To see if there is any significant difference between male and female EFL teachers and their teaching style preferences, the researcher ran a Chi-square test. The questionnaires were distributed among participants in one session, and then the data was inserted into SPSS. Finally, the results are discussed and some suggestions are made in the context of English language learning and teaching.{/sliders}
  11. {slider A Study of Translating Metaphors in Business Texts: A Case Study: Eat That Frog!. Sahar Soltaninejad and Masoud Sharififar|closed}This paper is aimed at identifying the way Iranian translators render metaphors in business texts from English to Persian according to Larson’s strategies. For this purpose, a business book named “Eat That Frog!” by Tracy was compared with its translation done by Aryan. The results of the study revealed that the translator used all Larson’s strategies more or less to render the business metaphors. The analysis also demonstrated that the most common strategy applied by the translator was the one in which metaphors were kept because they were correctly understood by the target readers. It is hoped that the findings of this study shed some light on the translation of metaphors in business texts.{/sliders}
  12. {slider The Aesthetic Comparison of Hafez Shirazi’s and William Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Mokhtar Ebrahimi and Maryam Ebrahimi|closed}Comparative literature deals with aesthetic comparison of the world’s great literary works in terms of intertextuality’s aims. Researcher can find overt and covert similarities, when they study these works. Likewise, in this article, the researcher compares the sonnets of Hafez, the great Persian lyric poet, and William Shakespeare, the great English sonneteer, as two lyric genre, and deals with the same themes like similar views toward lover and beloved, especially their behavioral aspects in Hafez’s and Shakespeare’s poems. It seems likely that, these similarities indicate the covert parts and traditional cultural roots rather than reciprocal influences between the texts. Therefore, in this article, the researcher reaches the way of similar narration of the two poets regarding the reflections of being, especially love. In addition, both Hafez and Shakespeare represent homogeneous narration concerning the depth of being and creation that have heavenly and spiritual aspects. Thus, these spiritual and heavenly aspects reveal the difference between thought of these two poets of spirituality with modern life that does hardly believe being as the creation of God.{/sliders}
  13. {slider Exploring the Relationship between Willingness to Communicate, Self-perception and Personality Type among Iranian EFL Learners in Ayandesazan Institute of Kerman. Behnam Safaei, Reza Pasha Moghmizade and Mohammad Shariati|closed}Willingness to communicate (WTC), an individual difference (ID) variable, has gained an increasing amount of attention in the area of Foreign language acquisition (FLA). Only a few studies have investigated the situational nature of WTC. This study is an attempt to realize the relationship between WTC and Self-perception and the relationship between WTC and Personality type. A mixed-method approach design employed in order to explore the different aspects of the WTC construct. Data collected through a questionnaire, classroom observations, and interviews. The participants, 221 Iranian students, completed the WTC questionnaire. Classroom observations carried out with four of these participants in order to understand their behavioral WTC. Follow-up interviews then conducted with these four participants. Findings from this study revealed that the selected Iranian students’ self-report WTC did not necessarily predict their actual WTC behavior, and thus confirming the dual characteristics of WTC. Trait-like WTC could determine an individual’s general tendency to communicate whereas situational WTC predicted the decision to initiate communication within a particular context. A number of factors that appeared to influence their WTC identified as self-confidence, self-perceived proficiency, and international posture. The results of this study contribute to the theoretical foundation and methodology of the WTC construct. The researcher of the current study has chosen to test MacIntyre et al.’s model of WTC (1998) for the goal of applying the model to the Iranian context.{/sliders}
  14. {slider The Role of Power Relations in the Translations of Postcolonial Fictions: Focusing on English Translations of Persian Works. Ahmad Alibabaee and Laleh Sheivandi|closed}The concept of multiplicity of meaning in language appeared with the development of post-structuralism in the sixties. Post-structuralism directs the translation researchers to the power relations and power hierarchy in the society and also marginalization that is behind the meaning of transparent language. The present study, accordingly, aimed at investigating how power relations were reflected in the content and structure of Persian-into-English translated postcolonial fictions. For this purpose, at first, one hundred and forty paragraphs were selected from two Persian fictions and compared with their translations to determine to what extent Berman’s “twelve deforming tendencies” were justified and to what extent ethnocentric pressure in translations could be identified. Then, to analyze the data, the occurrences of each deforming tendency were counted. The obtained results indicated that “Ennoblement and popularization” was the most frequent deforming tendency and “Destruction of vernacular networks or their exoticization” was the least frequent one. This may suggest that the translations, under the influence of ethnocentric behavior, are naturalizations of the original texts. Understanding how much the content and structure of different languages and their values preserve in our today world may be useful to the assessment of translation quality. These assessments are useful for students of English translation, translation teachers and theorists to improve the translation studies.{/sliders}
  15. {slider Item Preview and Proficiency Level in Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Items. Saba Vafakhah|closed}According to some studies, there can be a correlation between item preview, stem-option and stem, and test-takers’ performance on a test. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of test format on the testees’ performance in reading comprehension based on their level of proficiency. Three groups were selected based on the test-takers’ performance in the TOEFL test, namely elementary, intermediate and advanced. Stem-option and stem were the methods applied to administer the main test. After administration of the TOEFL test, the interaction between the variables, item preview, reading comprehension test performance and proficiency level, were investigated. It was assumed that the students’ performance depends on the proficiency level and the item preview chosen as a method to administer the test. Results suggest that test performance can be manipulated based on the testees’ proficiency level and the item preview applied to administer a test.{/sliders}
  16. {slider Investigating the role of Language Learning Strategies, the role of Language Learning Styles, and their relationship among EFL students of Azad University of Kerman. Masoume Askarpour Kabir, Reza Pasha Moghmizade and Mohammad Shariati|closed}The purpose of this thesis is to identify the learning styles and strategies of Iranian EFL learners, the relationship between their style and strategy preferences and their level of achievement and to investigate whether there is a relationship between students’ learning style and strategy preferences. The researcher has chosen to test Oxford’s taxonomy (1990) model of strategies for the goal of applying the Oxford’s taxonomy model to the Iranian context. Data collected through three questionnaires, and think aloud protocl.64 students of Azad University of Kerman were asked to complete two questionnaires. The results of the perceptual language learning styles questionnaire revealed that students’ major learning style preferences were visual learning. Furthermore, there was no relationship between the students learning styles and their level of achievement. The results of the strategies inventory language learning (SILL) questionnaire revealed that cognitive strategies were favored the most. Additionally, learners’ cognitive, compensation and social strategies had significant relationship with their level of achievement. The analysis with respect to the relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies revealed that auditory learning styles had a significant relationship with cognitive strategies and tactile learning styles had a significant relationship with cognitive, compensation, and metacognitive strategies. The think aloud protocols revealed that students used various cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The results of this study contribute to the theoretical foundation and methodology of the SILL and PLSPQ construct.{/sliders}
  17. {slider A Metacritical Approach to the Translation of The Great Gatsby. Sara Zandian|closed}Recent developments in translation studies (Munday, 2001), have made the theorists believe that translation should not be restricted to source text (ST) or target text (TT). Such a belief has provided us with new views especially concerning literary translation. Almost all translation studies emphasize on the necessity of different changes in literary texts through translation, like changes of the cultural and social aspects of ST in TT because while ST finds meaning in its own context , the translator should do some changes in different layers of TT, so that the rereading of TT’s values would be possible. But it seems that in the case of some literary translators in Iran, the transference of discoursal indexes from ST into TT, without any attention to TT’s discoursal indexes, has unfortunately led to the readers’ misunderstanding of ST’s discourse which has made their works somehow inadequate. Thus, the translation of The Great Gatsby (1972) the second best novel of the 20th Century, by Karim Emami (2000) and its criticism by the renowned literary critic, Abdul Hussein Azarang (2000), were analyzed and criticized in this research, using Nord ‘s textual analysis and following a metacritical approach. As he (2000) stated, the translator whom he called ‘the translator of the situation’, was among those few literary translators who using a ST-oriented technique, produced such a plain, fluent and natural Persian translation that his addresses could suitably understand the text ‘s message in a meaningful way. However, the findings of the study finally revealed that in order for a literary translator to produce a comprehensible and adequate TT, he should try to create a balance between exactness of translation and its naturalness, not to follow necessarily a ST-oriented or a TT-oriented technique.{/sliders}
  18. {slider The Role of Form-Focused Instruction in the Acquisition of the Relative Clauses by Iranian EFL learners. Farzaneh Emadian Naeini and Ali Akbar Jabbari|closed}Today one of the most frequently asked questions in the psycholinguistics of second language acquisition is about the efficacy of form-focused instruction; furthermore, the existing literature provides us with the evidence concerning the failure of cognitive linguists and SLA researchers in showing any significant learning of abstract patterns without awareness (Dekeyser, 2005). Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the role of explicit instruction, which is based on the weak interface hypothesis (R. Ellis, 1993), in the acquisition of English relative clauses. To this end, a total number of 90 intermediate EFL learners, both male and female, participated in this study. They were assigned randomly into three groups of 30 students each. The random group received exposure to numerous examples of adjective clauses in random order. The grammar group received explicit explanation of the rules in question, followed by the same randomized examples. The structured group received explicit rule explanation, followed by two examples after each rule, and then the same random presentation of examples as the other two groups. A multiple choice test containing 30 items on adjective clauses was administered to the participants. It was found that the structured group outperformed the other two groups. The results of this study revealed an advantage for explicit learning besides implicit learning; moreover, the most likely implication of this research is that focus on form is necessary to make learners consciously notice the abstract patterns that are not easily learned implicitly.{/sliders}
  19. {slider A Glocalized Post-Method Language Curriculum. Saeedeh Erfan Rad and Mehrshad Ahmadian|closed}Parallel to the innovations and advances associated with the third millennium, language curriculum has witnessed certain developments attributable to a number of factors. This paper is an attempt to investigate one of these factors under the title of ‘glocalization’. In so doing, the paper initially sheds light on the emergence of the term and continues with a delineation of the premises a glocalized curriculum is supposed to take into account. The paper suggests that implementing a glocalized curriculum requires adopting more active decision-making roles by the language teachers in all the processes of curriculum design, their professional development (through employing action research and incorporating SLA research findings) and a fresh look at the definition of the terms ‘curriculum’ and ‘syllabus’. In the meantime, it is discussed that the premises of postmodernism and its derivative in TESL, i.e. postmethodism can be traced in what a glocalized curriculum encompasses. The article ends with the implications of such language curriculum for an Iranian context.{/sliders}
  20. {slider Mobile vs Teacher Assisted Language Learning. Mohammad Reza Ghorbani|closed}The incorporation of technology, as an important instructional instrument, is believed to enhance and speed up Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) or English as a Second Language (ESL).Although some studies confirm the effectiveness of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) throughout the world, few experimental studies have been carried out in the Iranian EFL context in this regard. In fact, mobile phones are banned in the classroom. This study was an attempt to substantiate the effectiveness of MALL by assessing its impact on learners’ vocabulary retention. Quasi-experimental design was used to study 32 female and 22 male Iranian undergraduate students at the University of Bojnord (UB). Two classes of non-English major students were assigned different tasks from a collection of 30 episodes of The Flatmates from the BBC’s learning English website. Scores of the test were collected before and after the treatment. The reliability of the test was estimated at 0.75 through KR-21 formula. An independent samples t-test was used to compare the possible differences between the means of the two groups. The findings of the study confirmed the effectiveness of MALL vs Teacher Assisted Language Learning (TALL).{/sliders}
  21. {slider Investigating the Relation between Topic-hood with Definiteness, Subject-hood, and Prosodic Prominence. Habib Gowhary, Akbar Azizifar and Zakiyeh Esmaeili|closed}Topic as one of the main concepts of theory of information structure is represented by rather different linguistic tools in different languages. In present approach, topic is defined based on the pragmatic relation which it plays in a proposition. Accordingly, topic is an entity in a proposition which we talking about (Lambrecht, 1994, 118). In the present study, two goals are to be followed as far as topic is concerned: first, the linguistic representation of topic is to be investigated in English and Persian. Second, the relationship between topic-hood with definiteness, subject-hood and prosodic prominence is also investigated. To fulfill these goals, a corpus of data including more than 1000 noun phrases and 500 sentences were analyzed contrastively in English and Persian. The results revealed that English and Persian have their own different preferred topic expressions (first goal). As for the second goal, the employed X2 showed there is a meaningful relation between topic-hood with the three investigated variables. Furthermore, Z-test showed that this factor (topic-hood) has almost the same effect in both contrasted languages as far as subject-hood (syntax) and prosody (stress) is concerned. However, this effect has been reported to result in the use of rather different morphological forms (definiteness) in the two languages.{/sliders}
  22. {slider Implementing Performance Based Assessment in the EFL Curriculum. Ashraf Haji Maibodi|closed}Performance assessment and performance-based assessment describe assessment methods that require students to demonstrate what they know and can do by applying specific skills and competencies to a learning task. These tasks are often referred to as authentic assessments because they are typically designed to involve students in responding to a real-life task or problem. Performance-based assessment, such as portfolios, presentations, and participation, is currently being used in many second language programs. In order to study the effect of EFL students’ performance in writing, 120 undergraduate EFL students were randomly chosen from two different levels—sophomores and juniors. They were divided into experimental and control groups. An independent t-test was employed to test their performance on the two different test formats presented to them. The results of this study indicated that students’ performance can be affected by test format/task type.{/sliders}
  23. {slider A Contrastive Analysis on the Application of Definite and Indefinite Articles in the Story Texts in Persian and English Languages. Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol and Beheshteh Shakhsi Dastgahian|closed}Languages have different linguistic forms which can be contrasted to explore differences and similarities among them. The present study is a contrastive analysis comparing the application of definite and indefinite articles in English and Persian languages. In this regard 10 texts including historical and religious stories in Persian and their translations into English were chosen. Among these texts 113 cases of definite and indefinite articles were compared in two languages. The results of the study showed that 43 cases of definite article “the” and 29 cases of indefinite articles “a, an” were applied to show definiteness and indefiniteness respectively. Also the results of the study demonstrated that only 3 cases of definite article “the” were used for representing indefiniteness in Persian language.{/sliders}
  24. {slider The Relationship between Teachers’ Gender and Their Emotional Attitudes. Behzad Barekat and Samaneh Karami|closed}Due to the rapid growth of the importance of learning English and its dominance over the world, as well as the crucial role of teachers in the development of students’ learning, investigation of teachers’ emotional attitudes is of utmost significance, especially in EFL context. However, there has been less of a focus on how the emotions and relationships that EFL teachers have can affect their professional development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design an instrument for finding out the relationship between teachers’ emotional attitudes and their gender. Gender difference has been a controversial issue. Scientists have found that the brain structure of men and women are different (Rogers, 1999, Sax, 2005). To accomplish this aim, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 English teachers and the obtained data along with the results found from the related literature helped us in designing the first draft of our questionnaire. Then, the feasibility of the research was examined through 2 phases; at first with the help of 10 experts rating the items from 1 to 5, and then conducting a pilot study with 60 participants, from which the overall reliability of the questionnaire was calculated (α=0.93). Finally, a sample of 200 EFL teachers of English from different regions of Iran filled out the questionnaire.The analysis of data from both interviews and questionnaires revealed that there is no significant relation between teachers’ gender and their emotional attitudes.{/sliders}
  25. {slider An Exploration of RA Abstracts: From Schematic Structure to Modalization. Mohammad Reza Shamsaddini and Ali Mansouri Nejad|closed}Much has been said about rhetorical structure of RAs; however, there are very few studies on the interactions between move structure and modality. The present study seeks to explore the distribution of modal verbs within generic moves in abstracts using IMRD model of move analysis. The corpus includes 100 RA abstracts written by non-native writers in Persian GulfUniversity, Boushehr, Iran. The abstracts were selected from different fields including chemistry, agronomy, Persian literature, mechanical engineering, physics, fisheries, industrial management, civil engineering, psychology, and agriculture. The findings showed that distribution of modals was significant only within move 3, thus indicating the importance of modal uses both in rhetorical structure and pragmatic functions of writing RAs in ESP. It is hoped that a genre-based description of RA abstracts could help ESP learners to be aware of how writers are academically supposed to link modal verbs with rhetorical structure in abstract sections.{/sliders}
  26. {slider Correct I or I Don’t Correct Myself: The Effect of Corrective Feedback on EFL Students Writing. Hussein Meihami and Fateme Husseini|closed}A hot debate is in progress between giving corrective feedback (CF) to students on promoting their writing ability and accuracy or not giving CF. This kind of dilemma that might be caused by the controversial researches published over the last 20 years baffled teachers about giving or not giving CF. After Truscott, J. (1996) gave a case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes and Ferris, D.R. (1999) gave a case for grammar correction the question got tougher. The purpose of the current investigation is to shed light on giving written CF to the EFL students writing. For the purpose of this study, 160 EFL students of AzadUniversity participated in an extracurricular course; there were three experimental groups and a control group. The results emphasized the idea that it was cleared that giving corrective feedback should be considered as a productive way in improving EFL students writing.{/sliders}
  27. {slider Translating Cultural Terms in Harry Potter.&nbspAzadeh Gholamreza Mirzaei and Masoud Sharififar|closed}This study aimed at analyzing an English literary work (Harry Potter) and two of its Persian translations by Eslamieh and Riahi Pour, and comparing and contrasting the translation of extracted cultural elements (proper names, and metaphors and similes), based on Venuti’s ‘domestication’ and ‘foreignization’ methods of translation. The research dealt with translation troubles from English into Persian and one of the major relevant problematic forms; (cultural differences between the two languages), which may even result in untranslatability. Regarding this, Venuti’s theory has been applied to one of the eminent literary works of the contemporary English literature, Harry potter and The Goblet of Fire. Since the realm of culture is too vast to deal with, this work was narrowed down to some culture specific elements (proper names, metaphors and similes) as these elements play a prominent role in Rowling’s works. The results to some extent revealed the reason of more acceptability of Eslamieh’s translations, as ‘domestication’ was more frequently used in Eslamieh’s translation of proper names, which helped the TT gain the innateness of the original text, while she employed ‘foreignization’ method more than domestication for translating the text’s metaphorical expressions, this approach conveyed the magnificence and peculiarity of the ST metaphorical expressions, and corresponded to the author’s style.{/sliders}
  28. {slider The Power of Powerless Language Tests: Test Takers’ perceptions. Kioumars Razavipour|closed}On a macro level, tests have long served to push the agendas of the powerful: politicians, bureaucrats, policymakers, educational authorities, etc. Language Tests can go so far as to establish de facto models of language proficiency in societies (Pishghadam and Kermanshahi, 2012). High stakes tests have marginalized classroom achievement tests in research circles, leaving power relationships and classroom assessments an uncharted territory.This paper constitutes an attempt to see, from learners’ perspectives, the extent to whichELT teachers exploit tests’ power for maintaining dominance and authority. To this end, a scale was developed ,validated through factor analysis, and administered to English major students. Results showed that students across different institutions, genders, and proficiency levels find language achievement tests powerful means of control and domination. The validity of assessment practices was then examined through a set of interpretive authenticity criteria.{/sliders}
  29. {slider Power Distribution in EFL Context: Probing the Potential Role of Age and Grade of Study. Parviz Alavinia and Seyyed Hatam Tamimi Sa’d|closed}The current investigation sought to explore the power relationships prevailing among Iranian university EFL learners and their professors. Thus, in keeping with their main preoccupation in the present scrutiny, the researchers strived to gauge the possible influence of learners’ age and educational level on the power relationships holding between them and their professors. The participants of the study were some 42 BA and MA university EFL learners, both males and females, studying at a variety of grades in UrmiaUniversity. To conduct the investigation and elicit the required data, the researchers administered a purpose-made questionnaire, which was devised following the lead of Wardhaugh (1990) and Johnson and Johnson (1999). The researchers’ tailored questionnaire encompassed 24 items which addressed such notions as the participants’ way of addressing their professors and classmates, interruption, use of titles, tag questions, T/V distinction, uncertainty and hesitation among others. In tandem with the gained upshots, the participants’ demographic features, i.e. their age and educational level, were found to significantly affect the manner in which the power relationships went on in the class milieu.{/sliders}
  30. {slider EFL Teachers’ Perception of Professional Knowledge through In-service Programmes. Ghasemali Azadi|closed}This study attempts to identify the perceptions of EFL teachers in high schools towards the enhancement of the professional knowledge (PK) presented in the short-term in-service development programmes (SIDPs). EFL context in which English is exclusively learnt and used in the classroom calls for the need of proficient non-native teachers and highlights the role of SIDPs to support teachers to survive in the teaching profession. The main objective for this study is to determine whether there is any significant difference between EFL teachers’ gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and age and their perception towards the PK presented in SIDPs. The data were collected through questionnaire using a quantitative research method with a descriptive design and cross-sectional procedure. As the sample, 256 Iranian EFL teachers at Esfahan high schools in 2013 participated in the study and filled up questionnaires. The results were analysed through both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings on sample’s gender, academic qualification, teaching experience, and age indicate: a) there is no significant difference in the PK between male and female teachers. The attitude of both groups is positive; b) there is significant difference in the PK between Bachelors and Masters. EFL teachers holding Bachelor degree show positive attitude towards the programme while those holding Master degree show negative attitude; c) although all three groups with different teaching experience perceive PK as positive, there is difference among the three groups. The least experienced teachers show the most positive attitude and the most experienced ones show the least positive attitude and d) the youngest teachers show the most positive attitude and the eldest ones show the least positive attitude towards PK. In light of findings, the implications of the study concern the need for education policy-makers to outline more practice-based SIDPs, for teacher educators to revisit development strategies by welcoming EFL teachers’ challenges faced in the classroom, and for EFL teachers to involve actively in the SIDPs to widen their PK.{/sliders}

Category: 2014